Orange cultivation in India Orange is one of the top citrus fruits grown in most countries after bananas and apples. This fruit is rich in vitamins like C, A, B and phosphorus. Oranges can be consumed fresh or in the form of juice, squash, syrup and jam. Oranges are the main source of peel oil, citric acid and cosmetics. These orange fruits have good value in the international market. The orange tree belongs to the family of the genus “Rutaceae” and “Citrus”. Many different types of sweet oranges are grown in Asia and other parts of the world. However, one of the most common types is called a “Valencia” orange.
This variety (variety) comes from Spain and is also grown in Africa and Australia. Mandarin Orange is another variety which is very famous in the cultivation of Indian citrus. ‘Sweet Orange’ is the variety that is most commonly consumed in the world today. Actually sweet oranges were first grown in Asia but are now grown in many parts of the world. Oranges are round orange-coloured fruits that grow on a tree that can reach a height of 10 meters. Orange trees have shiny dark green leaves and small white flowers with five petals. Orange tree flowers are very sweet and attract many bees. Oranges can be grown in pots, containers even in the backyard. The commercial cultivation of oranges is very successful and profitable.
Major Orange Production Countries:
Major Orange Production Countries:-
10. South Africa.
Note: In Asia, India is the second producer of oranges after China and in India, oranges are mainly grown in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Punjab, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam and others. Gujarat.
Health benefits of oranges
Health Benefits of Orange:-
- Orange is a good source of Vitamin ‘C’.
- Orange is good for skin health.
- Oranges are good for eye health.
- Prevents cancer.
- Orange controls high blood pressure.
- Good for heart health.
- Lowers cholesterol.
- Reduces the risk of liver cancer.
- Orange helps in relieving constipation.
- Promotes healthy body tissue.
- Orange is good for the health of bones and teeth.
- Promotes immune health.
- Orange is good for digestion.
- Helps fight infection.
- Orange is good for kidney health.
Varieties of Oranges
Several improved varieties have been developed for each region. Find pest and disease resistant and high yielding cultivars from your local horticulture department.
Some of the important varieties grown in India are: Jaffa, Hamlin, Nagpur Orange (Mandarin), Coorg Orange, Valencia, Blood Red, Mosambi, Sathukudi (Satgudi), Khasi Orange, Mudkhed, Shringar, Butwal, Densi, Kara, SZ- In-com, Darjeeling Mandarin, Sumitra Mandarin, Seedless-182 and Kinno Mandarin.
Climate Required for Orange Cultivation
Climate Required for Orange Cultivation:- Oranges can be grown up to 1,500 m (above msl) in both tropical and subtropical climate conditions. However, a dry climate with a soil temperature around 25 °C would be optimal for the plant’s root growth. When it comes to best crop growth, low rainfall ranging from 75 cm to 250 cm in dry and arid conditions as well as well-defined summers
The most favorable are the conditions. The orange crop is very sensitive to frost conditions and high humid conditions leading to the spread of many diseases. The other risk involved in the cultivation of oranges is that during hot summers, hot winds cause the crop to shed flowers and young fruit. In order to get good yield of the crop, it is necessary to maintain good temperature during its growth period.
Soil requirement for orange cultivation
orange cultivation in india Orange can be grown in variety of soils like alluvial, sandy loam to loam, red sand soil to black clay soil. However, soil properties such as soil reactivity, soil fertility, drainage, free lime and salt concentration are some of the important factors of the soil used for orange cultivation.
Light loamy soil with deep and good drainage is best for the cultivation of oranges. The best soil pH for orange cultivation is 6.0 to 7.5. If the crop is planned on a large scale or on a commercial line, one should consider going for a soil test to ascertain the suitability and fertility of the soil.
Planting Season for Orange Cultivation:
Orange Farming Business Plan:- In Southeast Asia, after the onset of monsoon (July-August month) orange plants are mostly planted in the main field.
Field preparation for orange cultivation
orange cultivation in India For the cultivation of oranges, first of all, do two to three good slant ploughing through the cultivator in the field. After ploughing, make the field level by putting a pad in the field. After making the field level, prepare pits in rows leaving a distance of 15 to 18 feet. While preparing the pits, their size should be one meter wide and one meter deep. After preparing the pits, mix the old cow dung manure in the soil in appropriate quantity and fill them in the pits and irrigate them deeply. After irrigating, cover the pits through pulao.
How to prepare seedlings for orange cultivation?
Before planting orange plants in the field, their saplings are prepared in the nursery, you can buy seedlings made from any other plant nursery, but if you do not want to buy from there and want to make it yourself, then for this, orange seeds are dried by mixing them in ashes. leave for. After the seeds have dried, they are planted in a polythene bag prepared by filling the soil in the nursery. Two to three seeds should grow in each bag. Its seeds will take at least 15 to 20 days to germinate.
After that, when the plants are about two feet in height, then through the technique of planting saplings, their grafted plants are prepared, then after making the cuttings, they are planted in the field, apart from this, the farmer brothers are registered by the government. You can also buy its plants from the nursery. Orange Farming Business Plan
Irrigation in Orange Farming
Orange cultivation in India Irrigation is an important step in orange cultivation as citrus trees generally require more water than other fruit crops due to repeated growth and development. Irrigation depends on factors such as soil type, climatic conditions and age of the plants. Irrigation should be given every 5-8 days from March to June and every 9-12 days during November-February. Orange plants are sensitive to stagnation of water;
Therefore, waterlogging in the trunk of the tree should be avoided. Irrigate the orange orchard after transplanting. A large orange tree requires about 20-25 irrigations a year, with about 1,400 mm of water. It is recommended to go for drip irrigation as it has many benefits. The advantages of drip irrigation system are given below.
- The amount of irrigation or water is controlled and can be supplied as per requirement.
- Water is applied to the root system of the plant by drip irrigation.
- In the form of systematic irrigation, it improves plant growth and crop quality and yield.
- Water wastage is reduced by about 60% as compared to flood irrigation.
- Since water is supplied to the root system, fertilizers applied to the roots are used very efficiently.
- It reduces soil erosion and nutrient uptake compared to flood irrigation.
- Land leveling work is done minimally hence labor is required.
- Drip irrigation helps reduce weeds, pests and diseases.
- The crop can be grown anytime with drip irrigation.
Amount of Fertilizer in Orange Farming Orange Farming Business Plan
Manures and Fertilizers in Orange Cultivation The orange plant needs a very good amount of fertilizer, initially when preparing the pits, mix 20 to 25 kg of old dung manure in the soil and put it in the pits, then after that when the plant becomes three years old, then cow dung manure. With half kg NPK as chemical fertilizer. The amount should be given to the plants thrice a year. As the plant grows. Similarly, the amount of fertilizer should be increased, which will give good fruits and the plant will also grow well.
Pests and diseases in orange cultivation
Pests and Diseases in Orange Cultivation Pests found in Orange Cultivation: The main pests found in orange cultivation are black fly, citrus psylla, citrus leaf miner, bark-eating caterpillar, mealy bug, citrus aphids, citrus thrips, fruit fly and mites. These pests produce poor quality fruit and result in low crop yield. Spraying of insecticides such as monocrotophos, fosalon, dimethoate, phosphamidone and quinalphos has been found to be effective in most cases of these pests depending on the type of insect infestation.
Diseases found in orange cultivation: The major diseases found in orange cultivation are twig blight, gummosis, damping off, root and collar rot. Affected plants should be sprayed with Ridomil MZ 72, Bavistin, Benomyl etc depending on the type of infection.
Note: Contact your local horticulture department for pest and disease symptoms and their control. They are the best source of pest control solution in orange production.
Fruit Harvesting in Orange Farming Orange Farming Business Plan
The yield of the orange crop starts from the 4th or 5th year depending on the cultivar. The fruits of orange are harvested from January to March. During this, when the colour of the fruit becomes yellow, pluck a small twig along with the fruit so that the fruit does not spoil quickly and after plucking, clean it with a good cloth and put it in cold storage.
More than 100 plants can be planted in one acre of field. Whose total yield is obtained from 10000 to 15000 kg at a time? Whose wholesale price in the market is found around Rs 10 to 30 per kg, according to this, earning 2 lakhs can easily be done by cultivating in one acre.
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